Difference Between TCP/IP and OSI Model

Difference Between TCP/IP and OSI Model

Difference between TCP IP and OSI ModelTCP/IP is a communication protocol that allows for connections of hosts to the internet. OSI, on the other hand, is a communication gateway between the network and the end-users. TCP/IP refers to Transmission Control Protocol used in and by the applications on the internet.

TCP/IP and OSI are the two most widely use networking models for communication. There are some similarities and dissimilarities between them. One of the major difference is that OSI is a conceptual model which is not practically used for communication, whereas, TCP/IP is used for establishing a connection and communicating through the network.

Difference Between TCP/IP and OSI Model

Comparison Chart

Features TCP/IP Model OSI Model
1 Full-Form TCP/IP stands for transmission control protocol/Internet protocol. OSI Stands for open system interconnection.
2 Complexity Level. It is a comparatively simple model. It is a complex model.
3 Numbers of layers TCP/IP model has four layers: host-to-network, network, transport, and application layer. OSI model has seven layers: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application layer.
4 Session and Presentation layer There is no session and presentation layer in this model. Session and Presentation layers are present in this model.
5 Service Interface and Protocols It does not clearly distinguish between services, interfaces, and protocols. This model provides a clear distinction between services, interfaces, and protocols.
6 Model and Protocol Coherence TCP/IP protocols fit well in this model as a model is defined after protocols were implemented. Protocols do not fit well into the model, because the model was defined first before implementation takes place.
7 Type of Service TCP/IP model supports only connectionless communication in the n/w layer. OSI model supports both connectionless and connection-oriented communication in n/w layer.
8 Quality of Service It does not provide quality service. It provides quality service.
9 Type of Connection In TCP one connection can be established. In the OSI model, two independent full-duplex connections can be established.
10 Size of Header The minimum size of a TCP header is 20 bytes. The minimum size of the OSI header is 5 bytes
11 Approach Vertical Horizontal
12 Model and Protocol Coherence TCP/IP model does not fit any protocol OSI model has a problem of fitting the protocols into the model.

The TCP/IP Model was developed before the OSI Model, and hence, the layers differ. Concerning the diagram, it is clearly seen that TCP/IP Model has four layers namely, Network Interface, Internet, Transport, and Application Layer. Application Layer of TCP/IP is a combination of Session, Presentation, and Application Layer of the OSI Model.

Definition of TCP/IP MODEL

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) /IP (Internet Protocol) was developed by the Department of Defense (DoD) project agency. Unlike OSI Model, it consists of four layers, with each having its protocols. Internet Protocols are the set of rules defined for communication over the network. TCP/IP is considered the standard protocol model for networking. TCP handles data transmission and IP handles addresses.
The TCP/IP suite is a set of protocols that includes TCP, UDP, ARP, DNS, HTTP, ICMP, etc. It is robust, flexible and mostly used for interconnecting computers over the internet.
The layers, TCP/IP, has are:

  • Network Interface Layer,
  • Internet Layer,
  • Transport Layer,
  • Application Layer.

Definition of OSI Model

OSI (Open System Interconnect) model was introduced by ISO (International Standard Organization). It is not a protocol but a model that is base on the concept of layering. It has a vertical set of layers, each having different functions. It follows a bottom-up approach to transfer the data. It is robust and flexible, but not tangible.
The seven layers of the model are:

  • Application Layer,
  • Presentation Layer,
  • Session Layer,
  • Transport Layer,
  • Network Layer,
  • Data Link Layer,
  • Physical Layer.